Data Types and Mutability

3 minute read

Data Types

So far, we’ve seen two different data types in Objective-C, integers and strings. There are several others, and in this lesson we’ll learn about a couple more. See the list below for a description of each:

  • int - integer, a whole number: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... not something like 2.5 or ¾
  • float - floating-point number, meaning a whole or fractional number: 1.5, 3.75, 1.128, 3.666666667, 6.0000, etc.
  • BOOL - a Boolean value, of which there are two: YES and NO (effectively true or false)
  • NSString - a sequence of characters: Kathryn Janeway, awesome, etc. Strings can contain any Unicode character, including spaces.

Let’s take a quick look at a few more data type examples:

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int pennies = 4;
float chocolateBars = 6.25;
NSString *crewMember = @"Geordi LaForge";
BOOL isCaptain = false;

As you can see from the above example, when an identifier is declared it must be associated with a particular data type. pennies needs to be an integer so it can store whole numbers, chocolateBars should be a floating-point number, crewMember a string (NSString), and isCaptain a boolean.

Primitives

Some of the data types we’ve seen are called primitives. Examples include: int (integers), float (floating-point or decimal numbers), double (larger floating-point numbers), and BOOL (true or false). Primitives are the simplest elements available in Objective-C. They have a defined size in memory, so that an int created in one part of the program is the same size as another int created elsewhere. Consequently, these primitive datatypes have limits on the size of the value they can store. For int, that means a number between about -2 billion to +2 billion. Larger (or smaller) numbers will not “fit” in an integer variable. The other primitive types have similar constraints to the size of their values. The BOOL type can only ever equal YES or NO, which are stand-ins for true and false. The computer actually stores these values as 1 for YES and 0 for NO. So technically, BOOL is actually just a special kind of integer that has a range between [0-1].

Objects

Other data types, things like: NSString, NSNumber, NSArray, or NSDictionary are called object types. This means they are more complicated than a primitive and frequently take up more space in memory. We’ll learn more about objects in a future lesson, but for now, the simple way to differentiate primitives and objects is to look for/use a * when declaring an object variable, and to leave it out when declaring a primitive.

Mutability

We’ve seen both primitive data types and object data types in use, but what if we want to edit these values after we set them? If the value to be edited is a primitive, the value can be summarily changed with no restrictions.

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int apples = 5;
apples = apples + 1;
NSLog(@"%d", apples);

The above code block declares and initializes a variable apples to a value of 5 and then adds 1 to that value. The last line simply prints the value of apples to the console when this code is executed.

For object variables, the general rule of thumb is that an object is immutable unless it has the word “mutable” in its class name. For example, NSString is immutable. This means once it is initialized, the value of that string cannot change. An NSMutableString, however, can be changed after it is initialized. It’s a similar story for variables that are NSMutableArray’s, NSMutableData, etc. This isn’t necessarily a globally applicable rule, but Apple does tend to follow this convention, and third party software tends to follow Apple’s lead.

Recap

Let’s take a look at the concepts covered in this lesson:

  • Primitive data types: int, float, double, and BOOL
  • Object data types: NSString, NSNumber, NSArray, and NSDictionary
  • Variable mutability